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MLA Citation Guide (8th Edition): Indigenous Resources

On This Page: Indigenous Resources

The MLA Style Guide does not provide guidance for citing Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers. In the spirit of reconciliation, the following guidance has been developed by Norquest College Library and Ryerson University Library and Archives.

Unlike most other personal communications, Elders and Knowledge Keepers should be cited in-text and in the Works Cited list.

Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers

Last Name, First Name. Nation/Community. Treaty Territory if applicable. City/Community they live in if applicable. Topics/subject of communication if applicable. Date Month Year. 

Works Cited List Example  

​Cardinal, Delores. Goodfish Lake Cree Nation. Treaty 6. Lives in Edmonton. Oral teaching. 4 Apr. 2004.

In-Text Citation Example


  Note: If you would like to approach an Elder or Knowledge Keeper for teachings, remember to follow protocol or if you are unsure what their protocol is, please ask them ahead of time.