The Nishnaabeg term Aki refers to "landforms, elements, plants, animals, spirits, sounds, thoughts, feelings, and energies and all of the emergent systems, ecologies, and networks that connect these elements" (Simpson, 2017, p. 161).
As Simpson (2017) explains, the Nishnaabeg term Aki refers to "landforms, elements, plants, animals, spirits, sounds, thoughts, feelings, and energies and all of the emergent systems, ecologies, and networks that connect these elements" (p. 161).
The first option is the standard APA in-text citation format for quoting.
If your quotation contains more than forty words, it is a considered a long quotation. This can also be referred to as a block quotation.
Rules for Long/Block Quotations
There are three rules that apply to long/block quotations that are different from regular quotations:
Example of a Long/Block Quotation
At the end of Lord of the Flies the boys are struck with the realization of their behaviour:
The tears began to flow and sobs shook him. He gave himself up to them now for the first time on the island; great, shuddering spasms of grief that seemed to wrench his whole body. His voice rose under the black smoke before the burning wreckage of the island; and infected by that emotion, the other little boys began to shake and sob too. (Golding, 1960, p.186)
When you quote from electronic sources that do not provide page numbers (like webpages), provide another way to locate the quoted passage. You can use any of the following approaches:
Option 1: Provide a heading or section name:
Bowlby described "three phases of the separation response: protest, despair, and detachment" (Garelli, 2001, Bowlby's Initial Stance section).
Option 2: Provide an abbreviated heading or section name in quotation marks (use this only if the heading or section title is very long):
Unpleasant odors can be minimized "with scrupulous maintenance of your cat's litter box" (Syufy, 2019, "Get a Litter Box" section).
In this example, the full section title is "Get a Litter Box and Take Care of Sleeping Arrangements"
Option 3: Provide a paragraph number (count manually if they are not numbered):
It is important to remember that "study habits are very personal and what works for one student may not work for another" (Bennett, 2017, para. 3).
Option 4: Provide a heading or section name in combination with a paragraph number:
It has been shown that "moods can vary depending on weather conditions" (Stark, 2015, Mood and Weather section, para. 2).
If a source has no page numbers and there is only one paragraph, skip that part of the in-text citation. The in-text citation would have the author(s) last name(s) and the year, e.g., (Garellio, 2001).
Note that in most cases where a personal author is not named, a group author may be cited instead (e.g., Statistics Canada). However, in certain cases, such as religious ancient texts, the author is unknown. Where you'd normally put the author's last name, instead use the first one, two, or three words from the title. Don't count initial articles like "A," "An," or "The." You should provide enough words to make it clear which work you're referring to from your Reference list.
If the title in the Reference list is in italics, italicize the words from the title in the in-text citation.
If you are citing an article, a chapter of a book, or a page from a website, put the words in double quotation marks.
Capitalize the titles using title case (where every major word is capitalized) even if the Reference-list entry uses sentence case (where only first word is capitalized).
(Cell Biology, 2012, p. 157)
("Nursing," 2011, p. 9)
No Known Date of Publication:
Where you'd normally put the year of publication, instead use the letters "n.d."
(Smith, n.d., p. 200)
|Number of Authors/Editors||First Time Paraphrased||Second and Subsequent Times Paraphrased||First Time Quoting||Second and Subsequent Times Quoting|
(Case & Daristotle, 2011)
(Case & Daristotle, 2011)
|(Case & Daristotle, 2011, p. 57)||(Case & Daristotle, 2011, p. 57)|
|Three or More||(Case et al., 2011)||(Case et al., 2011)||(Case et al., 2011, p. 57)||(Case et al., 2011, p. 57)|
|Type of Group||First Time Paraphrased||Second and Subsequent Times Paraphrased||First Time Quoting||Second and Subsequent Times Quoting|
|Groups readily identified through abbreviations||
(National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2003)
|(National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2003, p. 5)||(NIMH, 2003, p. 5)|
|Groups with no abbreviations||(University of Pittsburgh, 2005)||(University of Pittsburgh, 2005)||(University of Pittsburgh, 2005, p. 2)||(University of Pittsburgh, 2005, p. 2)|