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APA Citation Guide (7th edition) : Indigenous Resources

On This Page: Indigenous Resources

Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers

Unlike other personal communications, Elders and Knowledge Keepers should be cited in-text and in the reference list.

‚ÄčLast name, First names initials. (Elder), Nation/Community. Topic/subject of communication if applicable. personal communication. Year, Month Date. Territory Acknowledgement of where information was shared/collected.

Reference List Example

‚ÄčLekeyten (Elder), Kwantlen First Nation. Community justice. personal communication. 2019, April 4. Shared on the traditional unceded territory of the Kwantlen, Musqueam, Katzie, Semiahmoo, Tsawwassen, Qayqayt and Kwikwetlem Peoples.

In-Text Citation Example

(Lekeyten, 2019). 

  Note: If you would like to approach an Elder or Knowledge Keeper for teachings, remember to follow protocol or if you are unsure what their protocol is, please ask them ahead of time.


Capilano University recognizes the Universities and Colleges that have contributed to the most used citation styles. Norquest College has developed the following citation styles in the spirit of wahkôhtowin and reconciliation, and is thanked for sharing their template for MLA and APA styles. Kwantlen University added a few elements as recommended by their Elder in Residence Lekeyten. Kwantlen University has also made additions to the Norquest College guide which are noted in red text. Kwantlen University collaborated with the University of British Columbia and Simon Fraser University to adapt a Chicago citation style.