"A number of Indigenous feminists and other scholars of colour have
powerfully for a more mindful and ethical consideration of our citational practices in academia. I think here especially of the work of Audra Simpson (Mohawk) and Jodi Byrd (Chickasaw), Sara Ahmed's feministkilljoys blog, and the Citational Practices Challenge by Eve Tuck (Unangax), K. Wayne Yang, and Rubén Gaztambide-Fernández—and especially that we not continue to replicate the closed circuit of white heteropatriarchy in affirming the same group of voices over and over again." (From Why Indigenous Literatures Matter by Daniel Heath Justice). from UBC's First Nations and Indigenous Studies Citation Page
The MLA Style Guide does not provide guidance for citing Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers. In the spirit of reconciliation, the following guidance has been developed by Norquest College Library and Ryerson University Library and Archives.
Unlike most other personal communications, Elders and Knowledge Keepers should be cited in-text and in the reference list.
The citation format for the reference list follows the following format:
Last name, First name., Nation/Community. Treaty Territory if applicable. City/Community they live in if applicable. Topic/subject of communication if applicable. Date Month Year.
Cardinal, Delores., Goodfish Lake Cree Nation. Treaty 6. Lives in Edmonton. Oral teaching. 4 April 2004.
The in-text citation format should be formatted as:
Delores Cardinal described the nature of the...
The nature of the place was... (Cardinal).
Note: If you would like to approach an Elder or Knowledge Keeper for teachings, remember to follow protocol or if you are unsure what their protocol is, please ask them ahead of time.