Start on the company's website. Look for the About Us and News page to learn about the company's mission, goals, and how they present themselves to the public.
You will find more information on public companies than private companies. Public companies have publicly traded shares on a stock exchange and are legally required to publicly report certain business and financial information. Private companies have no legal obligation to share their financial information to the public. It is unlikely that you will find their financial information since there is no competitive advantage to sharing this information.
You can find out whether a company is public by doing a simple Google search or by looking on the company's website. For example, InterContinental Hotels Group has an "Investors" tab with some financial information. You can also search on SEDAR (Canada) or EDGAR (US) sites for public company filings.