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Indigenous Resources

First Nations and Indigenous Citation

"A number of Indigenous feminists and other scholars of colour have advocated powerfully for a more mindful and ethical consideration of our citational practices in academia. I think here especially of the work of Audra Simpson (Mohawk) and Jodi Byrd (Chickasaw), Sara Ahmed's feministkilljoys blog, and the Citational Practices Challenge by Eve Tuck (Unangax), K. Wayne Yang, and Rubén Gaztambide-Fernández—and especially that we not continue to replicate the closed circuit of white heteropatriarchy in affirming the same group of voices over and over again." (From Why Indigenous Literatures Matter by Daniel Heath Justice). from UBC's First Nations and Indigenous Studies Citation Page

Unlike most other personal communications, Elders and Knowledge Keepers should be cited in-text and in the reference list.

The citation format for the reference list follows the following format:

Last name, First name., Nation/Community. Treaty Territory if applicable. City/Community they live in if applicable. Topic/subject of communication if applicable. Date Month Year. 

Cardinal, Delores., Goodfish Lake Cree Nation. Treaty 6. Lives in Edmonton. Oral teaching. 4 April 2004. 

The in-text citation format should be formatted as:

Delores Cardinal described the nature of the...

OR

The nature of the place was... (Cardinal).

Note: If you would like to approach an Elder or Knowledge Keeper for teachings, remember to follow protocol or if you are unsure what their protocol is, please ask them ahead of time.

Source: http://libguides.norquest.ca/MLA8/intextcitations#s-lib-ctab-10510622-5 and https://learn.library.ryerson.ca/citationhelp/indigenousstyle

When Should I Cite?

Any time your work contains or refers to someone else's:

  • ideas
  • words
  • images
  • media
  • sounds

you need to include a citation.

In-line citations or foot/endnotes (depending on the assigned citation style) should be inserted at the point of use in your assignment and indicate that the information you just presented came from a source other than your own brain or common knowledge.

A Bibliography and/or Works Cited section should be included at the end of your assignment.

Bibliography
Lists all the outside works you read or considered for this assignment

Works Cited
Lists all the works you referred to with formal citations (in-line or foot/end notes) in the body of your assignment

There are hundreds of bibliographic styles, each with it's own precise formatting. The most popular at CapU are MLA and APA.

CapU Writing Centre general information sheet - Documenting Sources (pdf)

When in Doubt - ASK!

If you have any questions about citations or academic integrity that are not answered on these pages, be sure to ask for clarification from:

The penalty for ignorance could be severe!